If your business is going to have employees, you need to include a personnel plan as part of your business plan and financial forecast.
Even if you’re not looking to get investment to grow your business, your personnel plan helps you think about who you’re going to hire to help you grow your business. You need to think about who is going to do what in your business and when’s the right time to hire each person. Your personnel plan is the key to getting this right.
If you are trying to get investors interested in your business, they are going to want to understand your plan for hiring: what positions you need to fill, when you plan on filling them, and how many people it’s going to take to make the business successful.
So, whether you’re seeking investment or not, building a personnel plan and forecast is an important part of business planning. Let’s dive right in and look at the 5 key steps you need to take to build a successful personnel plan.
1. Describe your team
In the “team” section of your business plan, you will normally include an overview of the key positions in your company and the background of the people who will be in those key roles. Usually, you’ll highlight each of the important management positions in your company and then speak more generally about other departments and teams.
You don’t need to include full resumes for each team member—a quick summary of why each person is qualified to do the job that they’re doing in your company is enough. For potential investors, this section helps justify why each team member is necessary for the success of the business and acts as justification for their salary and equity share if they are part owners of the company.
After describing the management team, describe the various teams your company is going to have. These might include sales, customer service, product development, marketing, manufacturing, and so on.
You don’t need to plan on hiring all of these people right away. Think of this section as an outline of what you plan to do in the future with your company—it illustrates what teams you’ll need and how many people you’re going to need as you grow.
2. Describe your organizational structure
The organizational structure of your company is frequently represented as an “org chart” that shows who reports to whom and who is responsible for what.
You don’t have to create a visual org chart, though—describing your organization in the text is just fine. Just make sure to show that you have a clear organization for your company. Is authority properly distributed among the team? Do you have the resources to get everything done that you need to grow your company?
3. Explain the gaps
It’s completely fine to have gaps on your team, especially if you’re a startup. You may not have identified all the “right” team members yet or you may not have the funds available yet to hire for key roles. That’s okay.
The key is to know that you do have gaps on your team—this is how you figure out who you need to hire and when you need to hire them. Also, it’s much better to define and identify weaknesses in your team than to pretend that you have all the key roles that you need. In your business plan, explain where your team is weak and what your plans are to correct the problem as you grow.
It might be tempting to hide your potential weaknesses from investors, but they’ll see through that right away. It’s much better to be open and honest about where you have management team gaps and your plans to solve those problems.
You also need to keep in mind that employees might wear a lot of hats in the early days of a company, but that specialization will happen as the company grows. For example, initially, the CEO might also be the VP of Sales. But, eventually, the VP of Sales role should be filled by a specialist to take on that responsibility 100 percent. Include these types of changes in your personnel plan to explain to investors that you understand how your company is going to grow and scale.
4. List your advisors, consultants, and board members
For some companies, external advisors, board members, and even consultants can play a key role in setting business strategy. These people might even fill key roles temporarily as a company grows. If this is the case for your company, you’ll want to list these people in your business plan as well. Like your management team, provide a brief background on each key advisor that explains the value they provide.
If your advisors don’t hold key roles or are not critical to your success, you don’t necessarily have to list them. But, do list anyone that is adding substantial value to the company by providing advice, connections, or operational expertise.
5. Forecast your personnel costs
Most business plans should include a personnel table to forecast the expense of your employees.
You’ll want to include both direct expenses, which is usually salaries, as well as indirect expenses, which includes paid time off, benefits, insurance, payroll costs, and any other expenses you incur for each employee beyond their salary.
There are different names for the indirect expenses of personnel, but I like to call it “personnel burden” or “employee-related expenses,” which is an expense over and above the direct wages and salaries. For business planning purposes, don’t stress about coming up with the exact figure for personnel burden. Instead, estimate it using a percentage of total monthly salaries. Somewhere between 15 percent and 25 percent usually makes sense, but it really depends on what kind of benefits you plan on offering.
In your personnel plan, you can list both individual people as well as groups of people. You’ll probably want to list out key people and other highly paid employees, but group together other departments or groups of people. For example, you might list out your management team, but then group together departments like Marketing, Customer Service, and Manufacturing.
Then, add in your personnel burden to cover benefits and insurance. In the example above, this is called “Employee-Related Expenses.”
You’ll then take the total number of your salaries plus personnel burden and include this in your Profit & Loss forecast as an expense.
What if you work in a home office?
If you are a sole proprietor and don’t have employees, you should still include your own salary as part of the business plan. Make sure to include your salary as an expense in your Profit & Loss. Even if you don’t actually take the salary because you want to keep the cash in the business, you’ll want to record what you should have been paid. This can be useful in the future as it keeps a record of what you should have been paid in the early days of the company.
In sole proprietor case, you probably don’t need a full table for the personnel plan, like in the example above. But, when you do start planning to hire a team, you should use the format I’ve described here.
Personnel planning is a very useful part of the business planning process because it forces you to think about what needs to get done in your business and who’s going to do it. Take the time to work through this part of your financial forecast and you’ll have a much better sense of what it’s going to take to make your business successful.