How to Do a Monthly Income Statement Analysis That Fuels Growth

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profit and loss statement to measure growth

Build the habit of reviewing your budget compared to your actual performance and you will build a stronger, healthier business. Studies actually prove this—they show that goal setting and measuring progress toward those goals greatly increases your chances for success.

The best way to review your plan compared to your actual performance is to set a regular monthly meeting on your calendar. If you’re just getting your business started, this might just be a meeting between you and your bookkeeper. As you grow, you’ll want to include more people—your management team and other leaders in the company. 

Setting a recurring meeting on your calendar has multiple benefits. First, it increases the chances that you’ll actually do a financial review since you’ve planned ahead and invited other people to attend. Second, it helps with transparency. The more you can share your financial results with key members of your team, the more you build an “ownership mentality” where everyone understands the financial picture and how they can impact change.

Begin with an income statement analysis 

A great place to start your financial review meeting is with your income statement, also known as your profit and loss statement (P&L). Conducting an income statement analysis will help you answer key questions about your business, find opportunities for growth, and uncover potential problems before they have a significant impact on your business.

Here’s a screenshot of a P&L statement in LivePlan. LivePlan makes it easy to review your financials because it pulls in real-time data from your cloud accounting tool like QuickBooks or Xero. It’s seamless to compare actuals against your forecast. But you can also use this free downloadable P&L template to build your own P&L in Excel and do an income statement analysis that way. 

Profit and loss in LivePlan.

Here are a few of the key questions that you’ll answer when you review your profit and loss statement.

Did we have good sales last month?

It’s easiest to start your review at the top of the profit and loss and work your way down. At the top, you’ll find revenue, and that’s a great place to start.

When you look at your revenue from last month, you should compare it to three other numbers: 

  1. Planned goal for revenue
  2. Revenue from last month
  3. Revenue from the same month last year

You’ll want to see if you met your goal for revenue and then answer the question, “why or why not?” If you beat your sales goal, you should discuss what worked better than expected. Are there successes that can be repeated? If you didn’t meet your goal, what prevented you from meeting your goal?

Ask the same questions about your sales compared to the previous month and the same month last year. A decline from the previous month might be fine if your business has normal seasonality. Most businesses will be looking to grow year-over-year, so comparing your sales to how you did in the same month last year is usually a good measure of your long term success.

Now, look ahead at your plan for the coming months and decide if you should revise your strategy going forward. Set new goals based on what you achieved during the past month.

Free profit and loss template download

Did we spend more than planned?

Now it’s time to look at your expenses—both your cost of goods sold (COGS) and your operational expenses. 

Similar to revenue, you should compare your expenses to your plan, last month, and the same month last year. 

The questions you ask are also similar: are you staying on budget? Are expenses growing or shrinking? Are these changes O.K.? For example, if your sales are growing faster than planned, it’s likely that your expenses are also growing. This is probably fine, but worth keeping track of.

Like you did with revenue, consider your strategy and plan going forward. Should you adjust your budget or keep things as they are? Set a task for yourself to revise if needed and then share that updated plan with anyone who is spending money in your business so that they can stay on track too.

Did our margins change?

After you’ve reviewed your expenses, take a few minutes to look at your gross margin. Your gross margin measures how much of each sale goes toward the cost of the products and services that you sell, otherwise known as cost of goods sold.

If this number is shrinking, it means that your costs are going up and eating into your profits. Your overall costs could be going up because you are selling more of a product that costs you more to make or procure. Or maybe your suppliers are charging you more. Either way, if this number is growing, you’ll want to dig into the reasons why and take action.

If your gross margin is growing, congratulations! Your business is becoming more efficient and delivering more profit to the bottom line.

How profitable is our business?

This is the proverbial “bottom line” in your business. Again, you’ll want to compare this number to your plan, previous period, and the same time last year. 

If you are more or less profitable than planned, you’ll want to dig into the reasons why. Did expenses go up and reduce profitability? Maybe sales declined, but expenses stayed fairly flat which would also reduce profitability. Look at your numbers and figure out why they are changing and come up with an action plan for changes going forward.

I sold more than planned. Why didn’t profits go up?

This is always an interesting problem that many businesses have. You sold more than you did last month, but profits stayed the same or perhaps even went down. How is that possible?

The first place to look is your operational expenses. Perhaps you spent more on marketing than you planned or you brought on some new employees and they helped generate additional sales, but not enough to account for the increases in payroll.

If the answer isn’t in your operational expenses, take a look at your cost of goods. It’s common for the answer to a profitability question to be hiding there. 

As I discussed in the question about margins, you’ll want to look and see if your cost of goods and gross margin changed. Perhaps your sales increased because you sold more of a product that has a high cost, while other low-cost products or services didn’t sell as well.

Consider a bike shop as an example. Mountain bikes might have a pretty low margin—the shop only makes a small profit on each sale. On the other hand, the service department is very profitable. Every repair makes a big profit. So, if sales of mountain bikes increase while service revenue remains the same, the bike shop won’t make as much money as it did the previous month.

In this case, the bike shop might want to explore ideas for growing service revenue or perhaps consider increasing the price of its mountain bikes so that they are more profitable.

Doing an income statement analysis—comparing your key numbers to your plan as well as last month and last year—is extremely useful. It helps answer key questions about your business performance and how you can keep growing, building profits that you can reinvest into growing your business. 

A monthly review of your business financials is invaluable and it doesn’t have to take a ton of time if you have the right tools available. Work with your accountant to make sure you can get the reports you need or use a simple tool like LivePlan to automate the entire process. Either way, take the time to look at your numbers so you can grow your business.

Noah Parsons
Noah Parsons
Noah is currently the COO at Palo Alto Software, makers of Outpost and the online business plan app LivePlan, and content curator and creator of the Emergent Newsletter. You can follow Noah on Twitter.
Posted in Growth & Metrics, Management